Four new studies show that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is a first-line treatment for panic and anxiety disorders; that it is extremely and long-lastingly effective for children and adolescents; and very effective for older adults, too..
A review article from the Mass. General/Harvard Medical School
reports that Cogntive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is currently considered
a first-line treatment for panic disorder, as well as a strategy for
those who do not respond to medication, and a replacement for those who
want to discontinue medication. A short-term intervention, it generally
consists of 12-15 sessions of either individual or group therapy. The
treatment focuses on helping patients learn about the nature of the
disorder and acquire a set of strategies (including relaxation, imagery
and other self-regulation skills) that counter the fears of panic
attacks themselves, and break the recurring cycle of anticipatory
anxiety, panic, and agoraphobic avoidance.
Citation: Rayburn NR, Otto MW.Cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder: a review of treatment elements, strategies, and outcomes. CNS Spectrum. 2003 May;8 (5):pp. 356-62.
Subjects were taught to access respiratory biofeedback from a handheld capnometry device in a brief, 4-week training, aimed at voluntarily increasing self-monitored end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) and reducing respiratory rate and instability through breathing exercises in patients'' environment.
Building on previous research that found that a brief computer-augmented CBT was as effective as extended therapist-delivered CBT, this study randomly allocated 186 patients with panic disorder (PD) across 2 sites in Scotland and Australia, to 12 sessions of therapist-delivered CBT (CBT12); or 6 sessions of therapist-delivered (CBT6); or computer-augmented CBT (CBT6-CA); or a waitlist control.
Swedish researchers find that both relaxation and cognitive therapy are extremely effective for treating generalized anxiety disorder, and results from relaxation get even better after a year
In a randomized, clinical trial, researchers from the Department of Psychology at Stockholm University, Sweden, investigated the efficacy of applied relaxation (AR) and cognitive therapy (CT), in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.
Citation: Dreher H. Mind-body interventions for surgery: evidence and exigency. Advances In Mind Body Medicine 1998;14:207-222.
Citation: Hamel, WJ, The Effects of Music Intervention on Anxiety in the Patient Waiting for Cardiac Catheterization, Intensive Critical Care Nursing, 2001 Oct; 17 (5): pp. 279-85.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2000 Apr 10;120(10):1186-90 draws tentative conclusions about music’s efficacy for treating anxiety and depression, and improving function in schizophrenia and autism; its utility for pain, reducing the need for medication aqnd helping during uncomfortable diagnostic procedures; its usefulness as a support tool during pregnancy and gestation, in internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics and other related fields; with geriatric patients, alleviating symptoms in stroke rehabilitation, Parkinson''s disease, Alzheimer''s disease and other forms of dementia; and its supportive role in palliative medicine and terminal care.
The article concludes that music as a therapeutic agent, and music with guided imagery, is well tolerated, inexpensive, and delivers good compliance with few side effects.
Citation: Myskja A, Lindbaek M. How does music affect the human body? Examples of the use of music in clinical medicine. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Apr 10(10):1182-5, 1186-90.