Analysis of the data revealed that with the exception of cognitive distraction, the people suffering from insomnia, relative to good sleepers, more frequently used thought control strategies. More specifically, strategies of aggressive suppression and worry appeared to be entirely unhelpful, and in fact, the use of these strategies were predictors of sleep impairment, anxiety and depression.
Subjects consisted of 20 kidney, lung, or pancreas transplant recipients, aged 35 to 59 years, living in the community who participated in an MBSR class (2.5 hours weekly, for 8 weeks, plus home practice for 45 minutes, 5 days weekly), modeled after the program of Jon Kabat-Zinn. The outcome measures used were self-report scales for depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI-Y1), and sleep dysfunction (PSQI).
Forty-eight public sector employees, with 10 or more cumulative days of stress-related absenteeism in the previous 6 months, were randomized equally to ''Beating The Blues'' plus conventional care, or conventional care alone. The main outcomes, measured at the end of treatment and at one, three and six months post-treatment, were scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Attributional Style Questionnaire.
One hundred four patients (57.8% of those initially assigned) with moderate to severe depression, from outpatient clinics at the University of Pennsylvania and Vanderbilt University who responded to cognitive therapy in a randomized, controlled trial were withdrawn from treatment and compared to medication responders during a 12-month post-treatment period. These subjects were randomly assigned to either continuation medication or placebo withdrawal. Patients were allowed no more than 3 booster sessions during continuation; patients assigned to continuation medication were kept at full dosage levels.
Adolescents suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) do well with a combination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Prozac, in a randomized, controlled, multicenter, partially blinded study at Duke University Medical Center.
This multi-center, controlled, randomized, partially blinded study out of Duke University compares the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (Prozac) and their combination for 439 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old suffering from major depressive disorder.
A study at the University of Bologna suggests that using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy allows a significant proportion of people with recurrent depression to withdraw from medication successfully and to stay well for at least 6 years.
Researchers from the Department of Psychology at The University of Bologna, in multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trials, looked at the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for replacing medication at reducing recurrence in depression. Cognitive behavior treatment had been found earlier to yield a significantly lower relapse rate than clinical management in recurrent depression at a 2-year follow-up. This study looked at a 6-year follow-up of cognitive behavior treatment versus clinical management.
In an ongoing assessment of web-based interventions designed to help people suffering from depression, Australian National University researcher, Helen Christensen and her team compared two internet interventions - one, a psychoeducation website offering information about depression, and the other, an interactive website offering cognitive behavior therapy at the screen.
Internet users in Canberra (n = 525) with increased depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to either the informational website, (BluePages, http://bluepages.anu.edu.au) (n = 166) or a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) website (MoodGYM, http://moodgym.anu.edu.au) (n = 182) or a control group (n = 178) that received an attention placebo - weekly contact from a lay interviewer to discuss lifestyle factors such as exercise, education, and health habits.
When the data were analyzed and broken down, Caruso and Helge found that both kinds of guided imagery performed equally well, and significantly better than the progressive relaxation, in reducing depression and anxiety for the patients - indeed, increasingly so over time.
The study showed that depressive symptoms did indeed predict survival. The risk of death increased by 40% for patients with negative affect, which meant downheartedness, sadness, irritability and restlessness. When negative affect was found in younger patients - under 51 mortality risk increased to a whopping 70%.
The other potent predictor of mortality was hopelessness.
Citation: Barefoot J, et al. Depressive symptoms and survival of patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine. 2000 Nov-Dec; 62(6):790-5
Web-based cognitive behavior therapy: analysis of site usage and changes in depression and anxiety scores.
All visitors to the MoodGYM site over about 6 months were investigated as aggregate data, including 2909 registrants of whom 1503 had completed at least one online assessment. (Outcomes for 71 university students enrolled in an Abnormal Psychology course who visited the site for educational training were included and examined separately.)