The main results were medium-to-large mean effect sizes for biofeedback in both adult migraine and tension-type headache patients. Treatment effects remained stable over an average follow-up period of 14 months, both in completer and intention-to-treat analyses.
Headache frequency was the primary outcome variable and showed the largest improvements. Further significant effects were shown for perceived self-efficacy, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and medication consumption. In addition, reduced muscle tension in pain-related areas was observed in electromyographic feedback for tension-type headache.
Biofeedback was more effective than wait list and headache monitoring conditions in all cases, while electromyographic feedback for tension-type headache showed additional significant effects over placebo and relaxation therapies.
The study concludes that biofeedback is an effective intervention for both types of headache, and provides recommendations for future research.