Aussies love web and phone based interventions for health education and mental health, and are pre-eminent researchers and evaluators of digital services – probably because flesh and blood providers can be hard to come by in the vast, non-urban areas of this very big country that's also a continent.
This Australian study examines whether mental health self-efficacy (MHSE), a construct from Bandura's Social Learning Theory (SLT), influences the positive results of web-based interventions on such conditions as depression and anxiety.
Researchers from the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, explored the efficacy of EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) for children with posttraumatic stress symptoms, comparing it to the more well-established treatment of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT).
A randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of both treatments. Forty-eight children (8-18 years) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of TF-CBT or EMDR.
Researchers from Vanderbilt University investigated the impact of mindfulness practice and positive psychology practice on mothers of children with autism and other neurodevelopmental disabilities. These mothers are known to live with extra stress, depression and anxiety, from the burdens of caring for their children.
A total of 243 mothers of children with disabilities were randomized into either a 6-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (mindfulness practice) intervention or a 6-week Positive Adult Development (positive psychology practice) intervention.
Researchers from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, tested the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low levels of sexual desire and arousal.
There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning.
Women subjects participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which they received two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment.
Researchers from the University of Greenwich, London, UK investigated whether hypnosis plus Virtual Reality (VR) performed more effectively than hypnosis alone.
Thirty-five healthy participants were randomized to self-hypnosis with VR imagery, standard self-hypnosis, or relaxation interventions. Changes in sleep, cortisol levels, and mood were examined.
Researchers from the Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS and Tor Vergata University in Rome, Italy, evaluated the impact of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery and phantom exercises on phantom pain in 51 subjects with unilateral lower limb amputation who experienced phantom limb pain (PLP) and/or phantom limb sensation (PLS).
The randomized controlled prospective trial was conducted on the amputee unit of a rehabilitation hospital, using 2 parallel groups.
The experimental group received combined training of progressive muscle relaxation and mental imagery, and phantom exercises 2 times/wk for 4 weeks, while the control group had the same amount of physical therapy dedicated to the residual limb. No pharmacological intervention was initiated during the trial period.
Researchers from Wilford Hall Medical Center at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, looked at the impact of guided imagery on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing same-day surgical procedures.
Forty-four adults scheduled for head and neck procedures were randomly assigned to 2 groups for this single-blind investigation.
Anxiety and baseline pain levels were documented pre-operatively. Both groups received 28 minutes of privacy, during which subjects in the experimental group listened to a guided imagery compact disk (CD), but control group patients received no intervention.
Researchers from the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada, compared the effectiveness of two different interventions for distressed survivors of breast cancer – group mindfulness meditation training with yoga vs. supportive-expressive group therapy.
This multisite, randomized controlled trial assigned 271 distressed survivors of stage I to III breast cancer to either a Mindfulness Based Cancer Recovery group (MBCR), a Supportive-Expressive Therapy Group (SET), or a 1-day stress management control condition.
MBCR focused on training in mindfulness meditation and gentle yoga, whereas SET focused on emotional expression and group support. Both intervention groups included 18 hours of professional contact.
Researchers from Yale University School of Medicine performed a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of computerized CBT (cCBT) for anxiety disorders and the durability of treatment gains during follow-up.
They included randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of cCBT for non-OCD and non-PTSD anxiety disorders, resulting in 40 trials involving 2,648 participants.
Computerized CBT was compared to wait-list, in-person CBT, and Internet control. They also examined moderators of cCBT treatment gains over follow-up.
Researchers from Duke University, Loma Linda University, the University of Maryland, University College in London and King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia examined the relationships between religiosity, depressive symptoms, and positive emotions in people with major depression and chronic illness.
Investigators recruited 129 people who were at least somewhat religious/spiritual into a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of religious vs. secular cognitive behavioral therapy. They used standard measures to assess at baseline the relationships between religious involvement and depressive symptoms, purpose in life, optimism, generosity, and gratefulness using standard measures.