Researchers from Nova Southeastern University examined the impact of a one-week, at home, mindfulness meditation training, as compared to an active control condition, on improving working memory, decreasing mind-wandering and reducing the impact of stress on working memory.
The results suggest that mindfulness meditation does not increase working memory or decrease mind wandering, but it does prevent stress related working memory impairments.
Researchers from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in critical illness survivors. Other goals were to identify risk factors and any successful strategies to prevent or treat the acquisition of PTSD in critical illness survivors.
The search identified 2,817 titles/abstracts, with 40 eligible articles on 36 unique cohorts (n = 4,260 patients).
The Impact of Event Scale was the most common posttraumatic stress disorder instrument.
Researchers from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, where they love web-based mental health tools, evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based program for preventing GAD (generalized anxiety disorder) symptoms in young adults, and to determine the role of telephone and email reminders.
They conducted a 5-arm randomized controlled trial with 558 internet users from the community, with 6- and 12-month follow-up.
Researchers from Mackay Memorial Hospital and Medical College in Taipei City, Taiwan, evaluated the impact of guided imagery and relaxation on patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy in this randomized, 2-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental study.
Sixty-five breast cancer patients were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 32) or to the control group (n = 33). Both groups received chemotherapy self-care education, but the experimental group also received relaxation with guided imagery training.
Researchers from several health institutions in Japan, in conjunction with Maharishi University of Management in Fairfield Iowa, examined changes in self-reported stress symptoms in 171 residents of two cities (Sendai and Ishinomaki) directly affected by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster.
The experimental group was given instruction in the Transcendental Meditation(®) technique and compared with 326 non-disaster Tokyo participants who were previously tested before and after they learned the technique, as well as a no-treatment control group (n = 68).
The participants completed a rating checklist of mental and physical symptoms.
Researchers from Budapest, Hungary analyzed the evidence regarding efficacy of preventative treatments, delivered immediately after a traumatic event, designed to prevent the later acquisition of posttraumatic stress.
A search was conducted in ProQuest, PILOTS, PubMed, and Web of Science for studies published between 2005 and 2015.
Twenty-one trials were identified, of which 6 presented interventions delivered within 72 hours post trauma, and the rest delivered within the first month.
In this pilot study, an investigator from Lehman College of the City University of New York in The Bronx, NY, studied the impact of training children with sickle disease to use brief guided imagery segments to better deal with their pain episodes.
The children were trained with an audio recording of guided imagery messages, which they listened to for 5 to 10 minutes, three times each day, regardless of pain and also during pain episodes.
Researchers from WellStar Health System in Atlanta GA and Kennesaw State University in Kennesaw, GA assessed the usefulness of guided imagery in helping wean patients off mechanical ventilators.
Forty-two patients were selected from two community acute care hospitals. One hospital served as the comparison group and provided routine care (no intervention) while the other hospital provided the guided imagery intervention.
Sedation levels, sedative and analgesic volume consumption, and physiological responses were the outcomes that were measured and compared.
Researchers from the University of British Columbia, University of Toronto, Dalhousie University and the University of Calgary studied the efficacy of light treatment, as a sole therapy and in combination with fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac), compared with a sham-placebo condition in adults with non-seasonal major depressive disorder (MDD).
They implemented a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and sham-controlled, 8-week trial with 122 adults (aged 19-60 years) with MDD of at least moderate severity, in outpatient psychiatry clinics in academic medical centers across Canada.
Researchers from Freie University in Berlin, Germany, investigated the efficacy of a cognitive behavioral internet-based intervention for war-traumatized Arab patients, to see if an e-treatment for posttraumatic stress that's been shown to be useful in western countries, has applicability to this population.
A total of 159 individuals diagnosed with PTSD participated in a parallel group randomized trial. Participants were randomly allocated by a computer-generated sequence to a treatment group (n=79) or a waiting list control group (n=80).
The treatment group received 2 weekly 45-minute cognitive behavioral interventions via the internet over a 5-week period (10 sessions in total). The primary outcome was recovery from posttraumatic stress symptoms.