Australian researchers from the University of New England in Armidale, Australia investigated whether mindfulness training is helpful to competitive cyclists with sport-specific anxiety, pessimism, and general experience of flow.
Cyclists were assigned to an eight-week mindfulness intervention, which incorporated a mindful spin-bike training component, or a wait-list control condition. Participants completed baseline and post-test measures of mindfulness, flow, sport-anxiety, and sport-related pessimism.
German researchers from University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and University Hospital Freiburg examined the feasibility of patients with psychosis benefiting from a self-help program of mindfulness therapy.
Ninety patients with psychosis were randomly assigned to either a mindfulness group or a Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) control group. They received their respective self-help manuals, including accompanying audio files.
Changes in symptoms were measured at baseline and six weeks later, with self-rating scales, including the Paranoia Checklist.
A team of researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York tested whether hypnosis could be a useful intervention in the management of painful HIV neuropathic pain.
This is the most common nervous system disorder in HIV patients, and one that adversely affects quality of life. No interventions have been shown to be consistently effective in treating this, known as HIV-DSP (distal sensory polyneuropathy).
Ninety consecutive patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) were randomly assigned to acupuncture, relaxation training or physical training.
Researchers from Göteborg Universityin Göteborg, Sweden.compared the impact of acupuncture, relaxation training and physical training on the treatment of CCTH.
Measures of headache intensity, headache-free days and headache-free periods were taken 4 weeks before the intervention, immediately after it, and 3 and 6 months post-treatment, using a visual analogue scale and a headache diary.
Researchers at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran tested the impact of a guided imagery audio tape evoking happy memories on sufferers of chronic tension headaches.
Sixty people with chronic tension headaches completed a demographic questionnaire and kept a headache diary, three weeks during treatment and one week immediately after.
Subjects were randomly assigned into one of three treatment groups: a Guided imagery (GI) with tape group (n = 20), a GI with perceived happy memory group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20). All sixty subjects received individualized headache therapy as well (standard care).
A team of researchers from the University of Rome reviewed functional neuroimaging studies that focused on changes in pain perception under hypnosis, to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns that occur during this mind-body intervention.
They found that different changes in brain function occurred throughout the pain network and in other brain areas as well.
Of the structures of the brain, the anterior cingulate cortex was found to be central in the general modulation of pain circuitry activity.
A team of researchers from Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Kerman, Iran, examined the effect of guided imagery on chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients.
This was a quasi-experimental study in which a group of sample was evaluated pre- and post-intervention. A convenience sample of 55 eligible breast cancer patients completed the Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Vomiting, before and after the intervention. The treatment consisted of listening to two guided imagery tracks.
Researchers from Cardiff University and Trinity College, UK, and Maastricht University, Netherlands, conducted a pilot to determine the impact of Neurofeedback, as compared with Motor Training (MOT) alone, on motor and non-motor functions in Parkinson's Disease (PD).
In this 10-week, randomized, controlled trial, 30 patients with Parkinson's Disease were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 (N = 15) received Real Time Functional MRI – Neurofeedback with Motor Training; Group 2 (N = 15) received Motor Training alone.
Researchers from the University of Twente in The Netherlands compared the effectiveness of a guided web-based intervention for depression, based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), with an active control condition (expressive writing) and a waiting-list control condition,
Adults with depressive symptoms from the general population were randomized to the three conditions: ACT (n = 82), expressive writing (n = 67) or waiting-list control (n = 87). The main outcome assessed was reduction in depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.
Researchers from Ben Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, Israel examined randomized, controlled trials measuring the efficacy of Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), a method that combines elements of exposure and cognitive therapy with acupressure tapping, for the treatment of anxiety.
As of December 2015, researchers found 14 studies involving 658 subjects (n = 658) that met the inclusion criteria. Results were analyzed, finding the pre-post effect size for the EFT treatment group to be 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.64; p < 0.001), as compared to the effect size for the combined controls, which was 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.67; p = 0.001).
The meta-analysis concludes that emotional freedom technique demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety scores, even when accounting for the effect size of the control treatment.