Researchers from Colorado State University and the National Institutes of Health examined the relationship between dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D).
One hundred fourteen overweight or obese girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms were enrolled in the study.
The researchers collected adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms. They also interviewed them to determine presence of binge eating episodes, and used a behavioral task to assess the reinforcing value of food vs. other non-snack food rewards. They also assessed body composition through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
In this RCT (randomized, controlled trial) researchers from the Mayo Clinic evaluated the effect of post-operative massage in patients who had undergone abdominal colorectal surgery, and found that it had a consistent, statistically significant, positive effect.
One hundred twenty-seven patients were randomized to receive either a 20-min massage (n = 61) or a social visit and relaxation session with no massage; n = 66) on the second and third day after surgery.
Vital signs and psychological well-being (pain, tension, anxiety, satisfaction with care, relaxation) were assessed before and after each intervention.
Researchers from The Sorbonne in Paris examined the relationship between dispositional mindfulness - peoples' natural tendency toward a mindful attitude (non-judgmental awareness of the present moment), and their weight status, in a large sample of the French adult general population.
A total of 14,400 men and 49,228 women, over 18 yrs old, were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mindfulness data was collected, using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, as well as self-reported weight and height.
The investigators assessed the association between weight status and dispositional mindfulness, as well as its subscales (observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reactivity), using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.
Swedish researchers from Linkoping University and Stockholm University looked at whether a blended treatment, with four face-to-face sessions and a smartphone application, could deliver comparable results to a full, 10-session course of behavioral treatment for people suffering from major depression.
The randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial compared a blended treatment (n=46) to a full ten-session treatment (n=47) with people suffering from major depression. The primary outcome measure was the BDI-II, administered at pre- and post-treatment, as well as six months post-treatment.
Results showed significant improvements in both groups across time on the primary outcome measure At the same time, the blended treatment reduced the therapist's time by an average of 47%.
Researchers from Leuphana University and Friedrich-Alexander University in Germany; VU University and University of Utrecht in the Netherlands; and the Black Dog Institute in Sydney, Australia, conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate whether Computer- and Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (cCBT) are effective as a treatment alternative for regular, face-to-face treatment for the symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents and young adults.
Researchers from the National University of Singapore conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of relaxation interventions on anxiety and depression among older adults.
Their comprehensive literature search identified 15 published and non-published studies - 12 RCT's (randomized controlled trials) and three non-randomized controlled trials - undertaken between 1994-2014. Three reviewers selected studies, extracted data, and appraised the methodological quality.
The findings suggested that in most studies, older adults who received relaxation interventions experienced greater reductions in depression and anxiety than controls.
Researchers from Nova Southeastern University examined the impact of a one-week, at home, mindfulness meditation training, as compared to an active control condition, on improving working memory, decreasing mind-wandering and reducing the impact of stress on working memory.
The results suggest that mindfulness meditation does not increase working memory or decrease mind wandering, but it does prevent stress related working memory impairments.
Researchers from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in critical illness survivors. Other goals were to identify risk factors and any successful strategies to prevent or treat the acquisition of PTSD in critical illness survivors.
The search identified 2,817 titles/abstracts, with 40 eligible articles on 36 unique cohorts (n = 4,260 patients).
The Impact of Event Scale was the most common posttraumatic stress disorder instrument.
Researchers from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, where they love web-based mental health tools, evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based program for preventing GAD (generalized anxiety disorder) symptoms in young adults, and to determine the role of telephone and email reminders.
They conducted a 5-arm randomized controlled trial with 558 internet users from the community, with 6- and 12-month follow-up.
Researchers from Mackay Memorial Hospital and Medical College in Taipei City, Taiwan, evaluated the impact of guided imagery and relaxation on patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy in this randomized, 2-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental study.
Sixty-five breast cancer patients were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 32) or to the control group (n = 33). Both groups received chemotherapy self-care education, but the experimental group also received relaxation with guided imagery training.