Outcomes were measured by the Movement Disorder Society-Unified PD Rating Scale-Motor scale, administered before and after the intervention, off medication. The secondary outcome measures were the PD Questionnaire-39, and quantitative motor assessments after four and ten weeks.
Results showed that the patients in the neurofeedback group were able to upregulate activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) by using motor imagery. They improved by an average of 4.5 points on the MDS-UPDRS-MS in the "off-medication" state (95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -6.6), whereas the MOT group improved only by 1.9 points (95% confidence interval +3.2 to -6.8). These results are on a par with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
The investigators conclude that NF combined with MOT is safe and improves motor symptoms immediately after treatment, but larger trials are needed to explore its superiority over active control conditions.
Citation: Subramanian L, Morris MB, et al. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Neurofeedback-guided Motor Imagery Training and Motor Training for Parkinson's Disease: Randomized Trial. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2016 Jun 8;10:111. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00111. eCollection 2016
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