The sleep improvements were maintained over the longer term. Symptoms of anxiety and depression also decreased after self-help (d=0.28; p<0.05 and d=0.51; p<0.05, respectively). The face-to-face treatments did not show statistically significant superiority to the self-help treatments.
The study concludes that the effects of self-help treatments are small to moderate. They may well constitute a useful addition to existing treatment options, especially when integrated into a stepped care approach.