Performing Under Pressure (7)
A study tests the effectiveness of a guided imagery-based career transition program, and finds it is associated with higher rates of return to full time employment and greater perceived control over the job loss.
This randomized study examined the effectiveness of a guided imagery-based career transition program as compared to a placebo control condition in promoting reemployment in 52 unemployed business people recruited from four different outplacement firms in seven locations in California (60% male, 83% Caucasian, mean age: 46.8).
Researchers from the Centre of Research and Innovation in Sport, at the University Claude Bernard and the University of Lyon in Villeurbanne, France, examined whether mental imagery (MI) training can increase muscle strength, especially when movements are under the control of large cortical areas in the primary motor cortex. (It has already been well established that it improves motor performance and motor learning.)
This pilot study experiment assessed whether MI can improve upper and lower limb strength, with complex, multi-joint exercises.
Researchers from Imperial College London and St. Mary's Hospital in London investigated the effects of “mental practice” (guided imagery) on surgical performance. Mental practice (imaginal rehearsal or guided imagery) of a task before performance has been shown to be successful at enhancing skill with sports and music [Ed. Note: also with rehab and several medical procedures]. This study looks at its impact on laparoscopic surgery. The idea is to give novice surgeons ample opportunity to practice safely before operating on an actual patient.
Researchers from the Astronaut Research and Training Center in Beijing, China looked at whether guided imagery can reduce the anxiety and tension that astronauts feel during centrifuge training (designed to improve their tolerance of hypergravity) and which can impede their responses. This small study measured the impact of guided imagery vs. music on changes in anxiety, heart rate and heart rate variability in 12 healthy young men before, during and after centrifuge training.
Change in the patterns of anxiety was different in the two groups over the three phases. Anxiety (measured by State Anxiety Inventory) in the GI group changed from 31.7 +/- 5.9 to 26.8 +/- 2.6 and 27.8 +/- 4.1, whereas for the music group this changed from 32.2 +/- 7.6 to 31.2 +/- 8.3 and 26.8 +/- 6.8.
Researchers from the Department of Mental Health at the Naval Medical Center in San Diego compared the effectiveness of Exposure Therapy (ET) to Virtual Reality (VR) in the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress in theater at Camp Fallujah in Iraq.
This case series documents the first use of VR-based therapy in the treatment of PTSD in a combat theater. Results of therapy are being reported from a mental health clinic in Camp Fallujah, Iraq.
Combat PTSD constituted a relatively small percentage of overall mental health patients seen. Those who did present with PTSD were offered either VR-based ET or traditional ET.
Researchers from Brainclinics Diagnostics in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, conducted a meta-analysis of the efficacy of neurofeedback on ADHD.
Both prospective controlled studies and studies employing a pre- and post-design found large effect sizes for neurofeedback on impulsivity and inattention and a medium impact on hyperactivity.
Randomized studies demonstrated a lower effect size for hyperactivity, suggesting that hyperactivity is probably more sensitive to nonspecific treatment factors.
Researchers from the Department of Nursing, Pochon CHA University in Kyonggi-Do, Korea, compared the impact of feeling state guided imagery (FSGI – imagery to generally improve mood) and end state guided imagery (ESGI – imagery to imagine successful performance) on stress levels and quality of performance in nursing students learning to give intramuscular (IM) injections.
The subjects were 40 female sophomores (21 for the ESGI, 19 for the FSGI). The instruments used were the Visual Analogue Scale for Stress and the Nursing Skill Performance Check-list on Intramuscular Injection, developed by the researchers. Guided imagery was provided through audiotapes for 8 minutes. A pretest was given before applying the guided imagery; the first posttest was taken after the intervention; and the second posttest was taken before the intramuscular injection. Evaluation of the performance of the intramuscular injection was done immediately afterward.